# Coursera: Machine Learning -- Andrew NG(Week 7) [Assignment Solution]

These solutions are for reference only.try to solve on your ownbut if you get stuck in between than you can refer these solutions

## --------------------------------------------------------------------

## gaussianKernel.m

```
function sim = gaussianKernel(x1, x2, sigma)
%RBFKERNEL returns a radial basis function kernel between x1 and x2
% sim = gaussianKernel(x1, x2) returns a gaussian kernel between x1 and x2
% and returns the value in sim
% Ensure that x1 and x2 are column vectors
x1 = x1(:); x2 = x2(:);
% You need to return the following variables correctly.
sim = 0;
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Fill in this function to return the similarity between x1
% and x2 computed using a Gaussian kernel with bandwidth
% sigma
%
%
sim = exp(-sum((x1-x2).^2)/(2*sigma^2));
% =============================================================
end
```

```
function sim = gaussianKernel(x1, x2, sigma)
%RBFKERNEL returns a radial basis function kernel between x1 and x2
% sim = gaussianKernel(x1, x2) returns a gaussian kernel between x1 and x2
% and returns the value in sim
% Ensure that x1 and x2 are column vectors
x1 = x1(:); x2 = x2(:);
% You need to return the following variables correctly.
sim = 0;
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Fill in this function to return the similarity between x1
% and x2 computed using a Gaussian kernel with bandwidth
% sigma
%
%
sim = exp(-sum((x1-x2).^2)/(2*sigma^2));
% =============================================================
end
```

## dataset3Params.m

```
function [C, sigma] = dataset3Params(X, y, Xval, yval)
%EX6PARAMS returns your choice of C and sigma for Part 3 of the exercise
%where you select the optimal (C, sigma) learning parameters to use for SVM
%with RBF kernel
% [C, sigma] = EX6PARAMS(X, y, Xval, yval) returns your choice of C and
% sigma. You should complete this function to return the optimal C and
% sigma based on a cross-validation set.
%
% You need to return the following variables correctly.
C = 1;
sigma = 0.3;
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Fill in this function to return the optimal C and sigma
% learning parameters found using the cross validation set.
% You can use svmPredict to predict the labels on the cross
% validation set. For example,
% predictions = svmPredict(model, Xval);
% will return the predictions on the cross validation set.
%
% Note: You can compute the prediction error using
% mean(double(predictions ~= yval))
%
results = eye(64,3);
errorRow = 0;
for C_test = [0.01 0.03 0.1 0.3 1, 3, 10 30]
for sigma_test = [0.01 0.03 0.1 0.3 1, 3, 10 30]
errorRow = errorRow + 1;
model = svmTrain(X, y, C_test, @(x1, x2) gaussianKernel(x1, x2, sigma_test));
predictions = svmPredict(model, Xval);
prediction_error = mean(double(predictions ~= yval));
results(errorRow,:) = [C_test, sigma_test, prediction_error];
end
end
sorted_results = sortrows(results, 3); % sort matrix by column #3, the error, ascending
C = sorted_results(1,1);
sigma = sorted_results(1,2);
% =========================================================================
end
```

```
function [C, sigma] = dataset3Params(X, y, Xval, yval)
%EX6PARAMS returns your choice of C and sigma for Part 3 of the exercise
%where you select the optimal (C, sigma) learning parameters to use for SVM
%with RBF kernel
% [C, sigma] = EX6PARAMS(X, y, Xval, yval) returns your choice of C and
% sigma. You should complete this function to return the optimal C and
% sigma based on a cross-validation set.
%
% You need to return the following variables correctly.
C = 1;
sigma = 0.3;
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Fill in this function to return the optimal C and sigma
% learning parameters found using the cross validation set.
% You can use svmPredict to predict the labels on the cross
% validation set. For example,
% predictions = svmPredict(model, Xval);
% will return the predictions on the cross validation set.
%
% Note: You can compute the prediction error using
% mean(double(predictions ~= yval))
%
results = eye(64,3);
errorRow = 0;
for C_test = [0.01 0.03 0.1 0.3 1, 3, 10 30]
for sigma_test = [0.01 0.03 0.1 0.3 1, 3, 10 30]
errorRow = errorRow + 1;
model = svmTrain(X, y, C_test, @(x1, x2) gaussianKernel(x1, x2, sigma_test));
predictions = svmPredict(model, Xval);
prediction_error = mean(double(predictions ~= yval));
results(errorRow,:) = [C_test, sigma_test, prediction_error];
end
end
sorted_results = sortrows(results, 3); % sort matrix by column #3, the error, ascending
C = sorted_results(1,1);
sigma = sorted_results(1,2);
% =========================================================================
end
```

## processEmail.m

**function word_indices = processEmail(email_contents)
%PROCESSEMAIL preprocesses a the body of an email and
%returns a list of word_indices
% word_indices = PROCESSEMAIL(email_contents) preprocesses
% the body of an email and returns a list of indices of the
% words contained in the email.
%
% Load Vocabulary
vocabList = getVocabList();
% Init return value
word_indices = [];
% ========================== Preprocess Email ===========================
% Find the Headers ( \n\n and remove )
% Uncomment the following lines if you are working with raw emails with the
% full headers
% hdrstart = strfind(email_contents, ([char(10) char(10)]));
% email_contents = email_contents(hdrstart(1):end);
% Lower case
email_contents = lower(email_contents);
% Strip all HTML
% Looks for any expression that starts with < and ends with > and replace
% and does not have any < or > in the tag it with a space
email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, '<[^<>]+>', ' ');
% Handle Numbers
% Look for one or more characters between 0-9
email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, '[0-9]+', 'number');
% Handle URLS
% Look for strings starting with http:// or https://
email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, ...
'(http|https)://[^\s]*', 'httpaddr');
% Handle Email Addresses
% Look for strings with @ in the middle
email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, '[^\s]+@[^\s]+', 'emailaddr');
% Handle $ sign
email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, '[$]+', 'dollar');
% ========================== Tokenize Email ===========================
% Output the email to screen as well
fprintf('\n==== Processed Email ====\n\n');
% Process file
l = 0;
while ~isempty(email_contents)
% Tokenize and also get rid of any punctuation
[str, email_contents] = ...
strtok(email_contents, ...
[' @$/#.-:&*+=[]?!(){},''">_<;%' char(10) char(13)]);
% Remove any non alphanumeric characters
str = regexprep(str, '[^a-zA-Z0-9]', '');
% Stem the word
% (the porterStemmer sometimes has issues, so we use a try catch block)
try str = porterStemmer(strtrim(str));
catch str = ''; continue;
end;
% Skip the word if it is too short
if length(str) < 1
continue;
end
% Look up the word in the dictionary and add to word_indices if
% found
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Fill in this function to add the index of str to
% word_indices if it is in the vocabulary. At this point
% of the code, you have a stemmed word from the email in
% the variable str. You should look up str in the
% vocabulary list (vocabList). If a match exists, you
% should add the index of the word to the word_indices
% vector. Concretely, if str = 'action', then you should
% look up the vocabulary list to find where in vocabList
% 'action' appears. For example, if vocabList{18} =
% 'action', then, you should add 18 to the word_indices
% vector (e.g., word_indices = [word_indices ; 18]; ).
%
% Note: vocabList{idx} returns a the word with index idx in the
% vocabulary list.
%
% Note: You can use strcmp(str1, str2) to compare two strings (str1 and
% str2). It will return 1 only if the two strings are equivalent.
%
idx = strmatch(str, vocabList, 'exact');
if ~isempty(idx)
word_indices = [word_indices; idx];
end
% =============================================================
% Print to screen, ensuring that the output lines are not too long
if (l + length(str) + 1) > 78
fprintf('\n');
l = 0;
end
fprintf('%s ', str);
l = l + length(str) + 1;
end
% Print footer
fprintf('\n\n=========================\n');
end**

function word_indices = processEmail(email_contents) %PROCESSEMAIL preprocesses a the body of an email and %returns a list of word_indices % word_indices = PROCESSEMAIL(email_contents) preprocesses % the body of an email and returns a list of indices of the % words contained in the email. % % Load Vocabulary vocabList = getVocabList(); % Init return value word_indices = []; % ========================== Preprocess Email =========================== % Find the Headers ( \n\n and remove ) % Uncomment the following lines if you are working with raw emails with the % full headers % hdrstart = strfind(email_contents, ([char(10) char(10)])); % email_contents = email_contents(hdrstart(1):end); % Lower case email_contents = lower(email_contents); % Strip all HTML % Looks for any expression that starts with < and ends with > and replace % and does not have any < or > in the tag it with a space email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, '<[^<>]+>', ' '); % Handle Numbers % Look for one or more characters between 0-9 email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, '[0-9]+', 'number'); % Handle URLS % Look for strings starting with http:// or https:// email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, ... '(http|https)://[^\s]*', 'httpaddr'); % Handle Email Addresses % Look for strings with @ in the middle email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, '[^\s]+@[^\s]+', 'emailaddr'); % Handle $ sign email_contents = regexprep(email_contents, '[$]+', 'dollar'); % ========================== Tokenize Email =========================== % Output the email to screen as well fprintf('\n==== Processed Email ====\n\n'); % Process file l = 0; while ~isempty(email_contents) % Tokenize and also get rid of any punctuation [str, email_contents] = ... strtok(email_contents, ... [' @$/#.-:&*+=[]?!(){},''">_<;%' char(10) char(13)]); % Remove any non alphanumeric characters str = regexprep(str, '[^a-zA-Z0-9]', ''); % Stem the word % (the porterStemmer sometimes has issues, so we use a try catch block) try str = porterStemmer(strtrim(str)); catch str = ''; continue; end; % Skip the word if it is too short if length(str) < 1 continue; end % Look up the word in the dictionary and add to word_indices if % found % ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ====================== % Instructions: Fill in this function to add the index of str to % word_indices if it is in the vocabulary. At this point % of the code, you have a stemmed word from the email in % the variable str. You should look up str in the % vocabulary list (vocabList). If a match exists, you % should add the index of the word to the word_indices % vector. Concretely, if str = 'action', then you should % look up the vocabulary list to find where in vocabList % 'action' appears. For example, if vocabList{18} = % 'action', then, you should add 18 to the word_indices % vector (e.g., word_indices = [word_indices ; 18]; ). % % Note: vocabList{idx} returns a the word with index idx in the % vocabulary list. % % Note: You can use strcmp(str1, str2) to compare two strings (str1 and % str2). It will return 1 only if the two strings are equivalent. % idx = strmatch(str, vocabList, 'exact'); if ~isempty(idx) word_indices = [word_indices; idx]; end % ============================================================= % Print to screen, ensuring that the output lines are not too long if (l + length(str) + 1) > 78 fprintf('\n'); l = 0; end fprintf('%s ', str); l = l + length(str) + 1; end % Print footer fprintf('\n\n=========================\n'); end

## emailFeatures.m

```
function x = emailFeatures(word_indices)
%EMAILFEATURES takes in a word_indices vector and produces a feature vector
%from the word indices
% x = EMAILFEATURES(word_indices) takes in a word_indices vector and
% produces a feature vector from the word indices.
% Total number of words in the dictionary
n = 1899;
% You need to return the following variables correctly.
x = zeros(n, 1);
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Fill in this function to return a feature vector for the
% given email (word_indices). To help make it easier to
% process the emails, we have have already pre-processed each
% email and converted each word in the email into an index in
% a fixed dictionary (of 1899 words). The variable
% word_indices contains the list of indices of the words
% which occur in one email.
%
% Concretely, if an email has the text:
%
% The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.
%
% Then, the word_indices vector for this text might look
% like:
%
% 60 100 33 44 10 53 60 58 5
%
% where, we have mapped each word onto a number, for example:
%
% the -- 60
% quick -- 100
% ...
%
% (note: the above numbers are just an example and are not the
% actual mappings).
%
% Your task is take one such word_indices vector and construct
% a binary feature vector that indicates whether a particular
% word occurs in the email. That is, x(i) = 1 when word i
% is present in the email. Concretely, if the word 'the' (say,
% index 60) appears in the email, then x(60) = 1. The feature
% vector should look like:
%
% x = [ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 1 0 ..];
%
%
%for i=1:size(word_indices)
% x(word_indices(i)) = 1;
%end
x(word_indices) = 1;
% =========================================================================
end
```

```
function x = emailFeatures(word_indices)
%EMAILFEATURES takes in a word_indices vector and produces a feature vector
%from the word indices
% x = EMAILFEATURES(word_indices) takes in a word_indices vector and
% produces a feature vector from the word indices.
% Total number of words in the dictionary
n = 1899;
% You need to return the following variables correctly.
x = zeros(n, 1);
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Fill in this function to return a feature vector for the
% given email (word_indices). To help make it easier to
% process the emails, we have have already pre-processed each
% email and converted each word in the email into an index in
% a fixed dictionary (of 1899 words). The variable
% word_indices contains the list of indices of the words
% which occur in one email.
%
% Concretely, if an email has the text:
%
% The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.
%
% Then, the word_indices vector for this text might look
% like:
%
% 60 100 33 44 10 53 60 58 5
%
% where, we have mapped each word onto a number, for example:
%
% the -- 60
% quick -- 100
% ...
%
% (note: the above numbers are just an example and are not the
% actual mappings).
%
% Your task is take one such word_indices vector and construct
% a binary feature vector that indicates whether a particular
% word occurs in the email. That is, x(i) = 1 when word i
% is present in the email. Concretely, if the word 'the' (say,
% index 60) appears in the email, then x(60) = 1. The feature
% vector should look like:
%
% x = [ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 1 0 ..];
%
%
%for i=1:size(word_indices)
% x(word_indices(i)) = 1;
%end
x(word_indices) = 1;
% =========================================================================
end
```